标题：Non-equilibriumbehaviour in coacervate-based protocells under electric-field-inducedexcitation
作者：Yudan Yin1, Lin Niu1, Xiaocui Zhu2, Meiping Zhao2, Zexin Zhang3, Stephen Mann4 & Dehai Liang1
Although numerousstrategies are now available to generate rudimentary forms of syntheticcell-like entities, minimal progress has been made in the sustained excitationof artificial protocells under non-equilibrium conditions. Here we demonstratethat the electric field energization of coacervate microdroplets comprisingpolylysine and short single strands of DNA generates membrane-free protocellswith complex, dynamical behaviours. By confining the droplets within amicrofluidic channel and applying a range of electric field strengths, weproduce protocells that exhibit repetitive cycles of vacuolarization, dynamicalfluctuations in size and shape, chaotic growth and fusion, spontaneous ejectionand sequestration of matter, directional capture of solute molecules, andpulsed enhancement of enzyme cascade reactions. Our results highlight newopportunities for the study of non-equilibrium phenomena in syntheticprotocells, provide a strategy for inducing complex behaviour in electrostaticallyassembled soft matter microsystems and illustrate how dynamical properties canbe activated and sustained in microcompartmentalized media.